Sawako Nakayasu, The Ants – Brooklyn Rail


Brooklyn Rail

Sawako Nakayasu, The Ants
Brooklyn Rail
Sawako Nakayasu’s tender and diminutive book, The Ants, is a series of ninety-three small-scale prose reflections on the sometimes miniature life struggles and desires of the Formicidae family, also known as ants. An ant’s life is its own, but as an

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Mad Ants already in playoff preparation mode – News Sentinel


News Sentinel

Mad Ants already in playoff preparation mode
News Sentinel
With one regular-season game left, Fort Wayne Mad Ants coach Steve Gansey is already in playoff preparation mode. His preparation for Tuesday’s playoff opener will include resting some starters Saturday while giving some non-starters major minutes.
Pacers send Georges Niang to Mad AntsWANE
Pacers’ Georges Niang: Assigned to D-LeagueCBSSports.com

all 6 news articles »

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Project Adrift | Adrift: The secret world of space junk

https://player.vimeo.com/video/186141191

https://player.vimeo.com/video/186141191

Adrift is Cath Le Couteur and Nick Ryan’s exquisite artistic and musical short documentary exploring the troubling, beautiful, dangerous and fascinating world of space junk.

Soon, about 20,000 more satellites could be sent into low-Earth orbit to enable global broadband internet coverage — more targets for conversion to space junk.

 

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This advance could finally make graphene-based semiconductor chips feasible

http://ift.tt/2ojncgL

Atomic force microscopy images of as-deposited (left) and laser-annealed (right) reduced graphene oxide (rGO) thin films. The entire “pulsed laser annealing” process is done at room temperature and atmospheric pressure, using high-power laser pulses to convert p-type rGO material into n-type and completed in about one fifth of a microsecond. (credit: Anagh Bhaumik and Jagdish Narayan/Journal of Applied Physics)

Researchers at North Carolina State University (NC State) have developed a layered material that can be used to develop transistors based on graphene — a long-sought goal in the electronics industry.

Graphene has attractive properties, such as extremely high conductivity, meaning it conducts the flow of electrical current really well (compared to copper, for example), but it’s not a semiconductor, so it can’t work in a transistor (aside from providing great connections). A form of graphene called “graphene oxide” is a semiconductor, but it does not conduct well.

However, a form of graphene oxide called “reduced graphene oxide” (rGO) does conduct well*. Despite that, rGO still can’t function in a transistor. That’s because the design of a transistor is based on creating a junction between two materials: one that is positively charged (p-type) and one that is negatively charged (n-type), and native rGO is only a p-type.

The NC State researchers’ solution was to use high-powered laser pulses to disrupt chemical groups on an rGO thin film. This disruption moved electrons from one group to another, effectively converting p-type rGO to n-type rGO. They then used the two forms of rGO as two layers (a layer of n-type rGO on the surface and a layer of p-type rGO underneath) — creating a layered thin-film material that could be used to develop rGO-based transistors for use in future semiconductor chips.

The researchers were also able to integrate the rGO-based transistors onto sapphire and silicon wafers across the entire wafer.

The paper was published in the Journal of Applied Physics. The work was done with support from the National Science Foundation.

* Reduction is a chemical reaction that involves the gaining of electrons.


Abstract of Conversion of p to n-type reduced graphene oxide by laser annealing at room temperature and pressure

Physical properties of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) are strongly dependent on the ratio of sp2 to sp3hybridized carbon atoms and the presence of different functional groups in its structural framework. This research for the very first time illustrates successful wafer scale integration of graphene-related materials by a pulsed laser deposition technique, and controlled conversion of p to n-type 2D rGO by pulsed laser annealing using a nanosecond ArF excimer laser. Reduced graphene oxide is grown onto c-sapphire by employing pulsed laser deposition in a laser MBE chamber and is intrinsically p-type in nature. Subsequent laser annealing converts p into n-type rGO. The XRD, SEM, and Raman spectroscopy indicate the presence of large-area rGO onto c-sapphire having Raman-active vibrational modes: D, G, and 2D. High-resolution SEM and AFM reveal the morphology due to interfacial instability and formation of n-type rGO. Temperature-dependent resistance data of rGO thin films follow the Efros-Shklovskii variable-range-hopping model in the low-temperature region and Arrhenius conduction in the high-temperature regime. The photoluminescence spectra also reveal less intense and broader blue fluorescence spectra, indicating the presence of miniature sized sp2 domains in the vicinity of π* electronic states, which favor the VRH transport phenomena. The XPS results reveal a reduction of the rGO network after laser annealing with the C/O ratio measuring as high as 23% after laser-assisted reduction. The p to n-type conversion is due to the reduction of the rGO framework which also decreases the ratio of the intensity of the D peak to that of the G peak as it is evident from the Raman spectra. This wafer scale integration of rGO with c-sapphire and p to n-type conversion employing a laser annealing technique at room temperature and pressure will be useful for large-area electronic devices and will open a new frontier for further extensive research in graphene-based functionalized 2D materials.

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This advance could finally make graphene-based semiconductor chips feasible

http://ift.tt/2ojncgL

Atomic force microscopy images of as-deposited (left) and laser-annealed (right) reduced graphene oxide (rGO) thin films. The entire “pulsed laser annealing” process is done at room temperature and atmospheric pressure, using high-power laser pulses to convert p-type rGO material into n-type and completed in about one fifth of a microsecond. (credit: Anagh Bhaumik and Jagdish Narayan/Journal of Applied Physics)

Researchers at North Carolina State University (NC State) have developed a layered material that can be used to develop transistors based on graphene — a long-sought goal in the electronics industry.

Graphene has attractive properties, such as extremely high conductivity, meaning it conducts the flow of electrical current really well (compared to copper, for example), but it’s not a semiconductor, so it can’t work in a transistor (aside from providing great connections). A form of graphene called “graphene oxide” is a semiconductor, but it does not conduct well.

However, a form of graphene oxide called “reduced graphene oxide” (rGO) does conduct well*. Despite that, rGO still can’t function in a transistor. That’s because the design of a transistor is based on creating a junction between two materials: one that is positively charged (p-type) and one that is negatively charged (n-type), and native rGO is only a p-type.

The NC State researchers’ solution was to use high-powered laser pulses to disrupt chemical groups on an rGO thin film. This disruption moved electrons from one group to another, effectively converting p-type rGO to n-type rGO. They then used the two forms of rGO as two layers (a layer of n-type rGO on the surface and a layer of p-type rGO underneath) — creating a layered thin-film material that could be used to develop rGO-based transistors for use in future semiconductor chips.

The researchers were also able to integrate the rGO-based transistors onto sapphire and silicon wafers across the entire wafer.

The paper was published in the Journal of Applied Physics. The work was done with support from the National Science Foundation.

* Reduction is a chemical reaction that involves the gaining of electrons.


Abstract of Conversion of p to n-type reduced graphene oxide by laser annealing at room temperature and pressure

Physical properties of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) are strongly dependent on the ratio of sp2 to sp3hybridized carbon atoms and the presence of different functional groups in its structural framework. This research for the very first time illustrates successful wafer scale integration of graphene-related materials by a pulsed laser deposition technique, and controlled conversion of p to n-type 2D rGO by pulsed laser annealing using a nanosecond ArF excimer laser. Reduced graphene oxide is grown onto c-sapphire by employing pulsed laser deposition in a laser MBE chamber and is intrinsically p-type in nature. Subsequent laser annealing converts p into n-type rGO. The XRD, SEM, and Raman spectroscopy indicate the presence of large-area rGO onto c-sapphire having Raman-active vibrational modes: D, G, and 2D. High-resolution SEM and AFM reveal the morphology due to interfacial instability and formation of n-type rGO. Temperature-dependent resistance data of rGO thin films follow the Efros-Shklovskii variable-range-hopping model in the low-temperature region and Arrhenius conduction in the high-temperature regime. The photoluminescence spectra also reveal less intense and broader blue fluorescence spectra, indicating the presence of miniature sized sp2 domains in the vicinity of π* electronic states, which favor the VRH transport phenomena. The XPS results reveal a reduction of the rGO network after laser annealing with the C/O ratio measuring as high as 23% after laser-assisted reduction. The p to n-type conversion is due to the reduction of the rGO framework which also decreases the ratio of the intensity of the D peak to that of the G peak as it is evident from the Raman spectra. This wafer scale integration of rGO with c-sapphire and p to n-type conversion employing a laser annealing technique at room temperature and pressure will be useful for large-area electronic devices and will open a new frontier for further extensive research in graphene-based functionalized 2D materials.

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Vector Institute Is Just the Latest in Canada’s AI Expansion

By BBC News

March 31, 2017

Comments

Geoff Hinton, University of Toronto

Geoff Hinton is known as the “godfather of deep learning.”

Credit: University of Toronto

Canadian researchers have been behind some recent major breakthroughs in artificial intelligence. Now, the country is betting on becoming a big player in one of the hottest fields in technology, with help from the likes of Google and RBC.


From BBC News

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What If We Had Perfect Robot Referees

By The New Yorker

March 31, 2017

Comments

Robot referee

Technological innovations have become part of how we experience sports. The problem is that most viewers at home don’t realize the imprecision of the machines.

Credit: Larry W. Smith / EPA / Redux

Last month, Mark Clattenburg, who is generally regarded as one of the finest referees in professional soccer, left England’s Premier League for a better-paying position in Saudi Arabia.


From The New Yorker

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Microsoft: AI Isn’t Yet Adaptable Enough to Help Businesses

By Technology Review

March 31, 2017

Comments

Peter Lee, Microsoft Research

Peter Lee, the vice president who heads Microsoft’s research division, spoke at MIT Technology Review’s EmTech Digital event in San Francisco.

Credit: MIT Technology Review

The AI revolution may take longer than some expect to spread from Silicon Valley into other industries.


From Technology Review

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Will Using AI To Make Loans Trade One Kind Of Bias For Another?

By NPR

March 31, 2017

Comments

The terms of the next loan you get might depend less on your credit score and more on what a computer program thinks of your habits.


Digital lending is expected to double in size over the next three years, reaching nearly 10 percent of all loans in the U.S. and Europe. There are now some 2,000 digital startups, many of which are using artificial intelligence to analyze the troves of data created every day.


“In 10 years, there will hardly be a credit decision made that does not have some flavor of machine learning behind it,” says Dave Girouard, the CEO of Upstart, an online lender. “The variables we’re introducing to this model actually are reducing the bias inherent in most lending systems. And that’s just one way we’re actually expanding access to credit.”


If artificial intelligence can weed out good borrowers from bad just by looking at things like Web browsing history, suddenly it doesn’t matter if you live in a low-income neighborhood or your family just immigrated. But it does open the door to new, 21st century versions of redlining.


From NPR

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